Harvard Referencing Style

What is Harvard Style?

Harvard referencing style is used primarily in education area. Harvard referencing style uses references in two places in a piece of writing: in the text and in a reference list at the end. In general, each author name that appears in the text must also appear in the reference list, and every work in the reference list must also be referred to in the main text. All the details of the reference are important, even the full stops and commas. In-text references in Harvard style should give the author’s family name and the year of the work’s publication. If you quote or paraphrase, you should also give a page number.

See all examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

Journal articles

Required information and layout:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year of publication, ‘Title in single quotes’, Journal Title in Italics, vol. ##, (volume number) no. #, (issue number) pp. #-# (page numbers the article covers).

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Journal article - Print(Habel 2009)Habel, C 2009, 'Academic self-efficacy in ALL: capacity-building through self-belief', Journal of Academic Language and Learning, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 94-104.
Journal article from web, freely available from an e-journal’s website(Ticker 2017)Ticker, CS 2017, 'Music and the mind: music's healing powers', Musical Offerings, vol. 8, no. 1, article 1, viewed 21 May 2017, (https://digitalcommons.cedarville.edu/musicalofferings/vol8/iss1/1/).
Journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)(Jeeyoo et al. 2017)Jeeyoo, L, Ji-Eun, L, Yuri, K, Lee, J, Lee, J-E & Kim, Y 2017, 'Relationship between coffee consumption and stroke risk in Korean population: the Health Examinees (HEXA) study', Nutrition Journal, vol. 16, pp. 1-8, DOI:10.1186/s12937-017
Journal article in press/advance online publication(Muldoon 2012)Muldoon, K, Towse, J, Simms, V, Perra, O, & Menzies, V 2012 ‘A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year’, Developmental Psychology, advance online publication, DOI:10.1037/a0028240.
Journal article with two authors(Darwin & Palmer 2009)Darwin, A & Palmer, E 2009, 'Mentoring circles in higher education', Higher Education Research and Development, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 125-136.
Journal article with three authors(Maier, Baron & McLaughlan 2007) Maier, H, Baron, J & McLaughlan, R 2007, 'Using online roleplay simulations for teaching sustainability principles to engineering students', International Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1162-1171.
Journal article with four or more authors (Grosso et al. 2017) Grosso, G, Stepaniak, U, Micek, A, Stefler, D, Bobak, M & Pajak, A 2017, 'Coffee consumption and mortality in three Eastern European countries: results from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study', Public Health Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 82-91.
Books, E-Books and Book Chapters

Required information and layout:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year of publication, Title (in italics), Publisher, Place of Publication.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Book - Print(Connell 2009)Connell, R 2009, Gender, Polity Press, Cambridge.
E-Book accessed via a Universitas Library databaseSee “Book – Print” aboveSame as for print book. If a DOI is available and your lecturer requires it, this may be included at the end of the reference (see example of “Journal article with DOI”, above).
E-Book from web (freely available online)(de Grosbois 2015)Same as for print book, but include date viewed and URL. If an eBook is "born digital" (it has only ever been published online) and no place of publication can be located, only list the publisher. If it has a DOI, this may be listed in place of the date viewed and URL.

de Grosbois, T 2015, Mass influence: the habits of the highly influential, Wildfire Workshops, viewed 21 May 2017, (http://www.massinfluencethebook.com).
Book with two or three authors(Campbell, Fox & de Zwart 2010)List all authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book. Use an ampersand (&) to separate the last two authors.

Campbell, E, Fox, R & de Zwart, M 2010, Students’ guide to legal writing, law exams and self assessment, 3rd edn, Federation Press, Sydney.
Book with four or more authors(Henkin et al. 2006)In the in-text citation, list only the first author, then et al. In the bibliography, list all authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book. Use an ampersand (&) to separate the last two authors.

Henkin, RE, Bova, D, Dillehay, GL, Halama, JR, Karesh, SM, Wagner, RH & Zimmer, MZ 2006, Nuclear medicine, 2nd edn, Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia.
Book chapter in compiled book (each chapter written by a different author)(Warner 2010)This example is for a book with multiple authors and editors. For the in-text citation, list the author(s) and date. For the bibliography, give author/chapter information, then editors (initials, then surname), title, publication information. You must also give the chapter page numbers.

Warner, R 2010, 'Giving feedback on assignment writing to international students - the integration of voice and writing tools', in WM Chan, KN Chin, M Nagami & T Suthiwan (eds), Media in foreign language teaching and learning, De Gruyter, Boston, pp. 355-382.
Book with an edition number(Carroll 2012)For a book with an edition number, add the number and the abbreviation ‘edn’ after the title of the book. There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned.

Carroll, AB 2012, Business & society: ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management, 8th edn, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, Oklahoma.
Book with no author(Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002)Use the title in place of the author name.
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.
Book with a volume number(Cowie, Mackin & McCaig 1983)Cowie, AP, Mackin, R & McCaig, IR 1983, Oxford dictionary of current idiomatic English, vol. 2, Phrase, clause and sentence idioms, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Book written in a foreign languageTranslate the book title only. (Lemmens 1996)Lemmens, M 1996, 'La grammaire dans les dictionnaires bilingues', in H Béjoint & P Thoiron (eds), Les dictionnaires bilingues (Bilingual dictionaries), Duculot s.a., Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, pp. 71-102.
Book translated from a foreign language(Jansson 1948)Jansson, T 1948, Finn family Moomintroll, trans. E Portch, Puffin Books, London.
Conference Publications

Required information and layout:
Author’s family name, Initial(s) year of publication, ‘Title of paper’, in Editor’s initial(s) Editor’s family name (ed.), Title of conference, Conference Organiser/Publisher, Place of publication, pp. xxx–xxx.

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Conference paper published in book of proceedings(Goldfinch 2005)Goldfinch, M 2005, 'A pilot discussion board for questions about referencing: what do students say and do?' in G Grigg & C Bond (eds), Supporting learning in the 21st century, proceedings of the 2005 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ), Dunedin, New Zealand, pp. 179-191.
Conference paper – online edited proceedings(Crisp, G, Hillier, M & Joarder, S 2010)Crisp, G, Hillier, M & Joarder, S 2010, ‘Assessing students in Second Life – some options’, in CH Steel, MJ Keppell, P Gerbic, & S Housego (eds), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proceedings of the 27th Annual ASCILITE Conference: Curriculum, technology and transformation for an unknown future, Sydney, pp. 256–261, viewed 15 July 2011, (http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney10/proceedings.htm).
Conference presentation – unpublished(Butler 2009) Butler, D 2009, 'Using video worked examples to enhance learning in a first year mathematics course', paper presented at the 4th ERGA conference, University of Adelaide, 24-25 September.
Newspaper or magazine article

Required information and layout:
Author's family name, Initial(s) OR Publication Name year, 'Title of article', Title of news or magazine site, date of publication OR volume and issue, page numbers if applicable, viewed date (if online publication), (URL)

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Newspaper or magazine article(Robertson & Kyriacou 2010)Robertson, D & Kyriacou, K 2010, 'Skating on thin ice', Advertiser, 20 November, p. 9.
Newspaper or magazine article viewed online(Banks 2010)Banks, D 2010, 'Tweeting in court: Why reporters must be given guidelines’, The Guardian, 15 December, viewed 25 November 2015, (http://www.theguardian.com/law/2010/dec/15/tweeting-court-reporters-julian-assange).
Newspaper or magazine article with no author(Evening Express 2014)Give the publication name in place of the author name. For articles viewed online, include date viewed and URL.

Evening Express 2014, ‘Firearms officer drove at 60mph on wrong side of road in Aberdeen’, Evening Express, 22 May, p. 12, viewed 18 April 2017, (http://www.eveningexpress.co.uk/news/local/firearms-officer-drove-at-60mph-on-wrong-side-of-road-in-aberdeen-1.382464).
Data set

Required information and layout:
Author's family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, Title of dataset, Physical location (if applicable), DOI or viewed date, (URL). If a DOI is given, do not include date viewed or (URL).

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Data set with DOI(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies 2013)U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies 2013, Treatment episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009, DOI:10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2.
Data set – no DOI(Bureau of Meteorology 2011)Bureau of Meteorology 2011, High-quality Australian daily rainfall dataset, Bureau of Meteorology, viewed 17 November 2011, (ftp://ftp.bom.gov.au/anon/home/ncc/www/change/HQdailyR).

It is best, wherever possible, to reference the specific page or section of a website that you are using, rather than the whole website.

If a website document doesn’t have an author (individual or corporate), start with the title of the document in italics followed by the date. If there is no date, use n.d.


Author's family name, Initial(s) OR Authoring body year, Title of webpage (in italics), Title of website, viewed date, (URL).

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Webpage(World Health Organization 2014)World Health Organization 2014, WHO recommendations for routine immunization – summary tables, World Health Organization, viewed 1 May 2014, (http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/ummunization_tables/en/).
Social media

Required information and layout:
Author’s family name, initial(s) year, Title (in italics), source type, day and month of publication (if applicable), viewed date, (URL).

Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Blog(Smalls & Brook 2010)Smalls, S & Brook, S 2006, My great blog, blog, viewed 10 January 2008, (http://mygreatblog.blogspot.com).
Blog post(Bergmann 2011)To reference an individual post within a whole blog, include the name of the whole blog and the date of the specific post.

Bergmann, L 2011, ‘The active voice versus the passive voice’, blog post, Grammar Gang, 5 July, viewed 27 July 2011, (http://thegrammargang.blogspot.com.au/2011/07/helpnest-feature-5-active-voice-versus.html).
Facebook post(Smith 2015)Smith, P 2015, Rethinking higher education the team is everything, Facebook, 25 April, viewed 16 June 2015, (https://www.facebook.com/pages/Peter-P-Smith/196037770427320).
Podcast(Isherwood 2012)Isherwood, B 2012, Where ideas come from, podcast, 12 September, viewed 5 June 2014, (http://itunesu.rmit.edu.au/node/862).
Twitter(Obama 2016)Obama, B 2016, It’s time for Senate leaders to put politics aside…/ Twitter, 17 May, viewed 19 May 2016, (https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/732589315478290432/).
YouTube(Bainbridge State College 2010)Bainbridge State College 2010, Plagiarism: how to avoid it, YouTube, 5 January, viewed June 5 2017, (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2q0NlWcTq1Y).
Other reference types (print or online)
Material TypeIn Text CitationReference List Entry
Artwork(Gaudernack 1907)

(Turner 1812)
Gaudernack, G 1907, Plique a jour, enamelled vase, Kunstindustrimuseet, Oslo.

Turner, JMW 1812, Snow storm: Hannibal and army crossing the alps, Oil on canvas, 145×2360 mm, Turner Collection, Tate Gallery, Britain.
Australian Bureau of Statistics(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008)Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, Australian social trends 2007, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, viewed 31 October 2008, (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au). Material. http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/2003-06a.pdf.
The Bible(Psalm 23: 1-2)[Only include in reference list if details are necessary.]
Dictionary(Longman dictionary of contemporary English 2003)Longman dictionary of contemporary English, 3rd edn, 2003, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, UK. [Only include in reference list if details are necessary.]
Encyclopaedia – author prominent(Crystal 1995)Crystal, D 1995, The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Encyclopaedia – author not prominent(Encyclopaedia Britannica 1966)Encyclopaedia Britannica 1966, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., Chicago.
Email, phone conversation, letters, interviewsTreat as a personal communication; do not include it in the reference list.It is preferable to include the details in your written text. e.g. A Polish learner’s dictionary was written in 2009 (Pius ten Hacken, personal communication, 5 November 2010).
Lecture in which you take your own notesTreat as a personal communication; do not include it in the reference list.It is preferable to include the details in your written text. e.g. During a lecture in the topic 7052 'Electromagnetic theory and RFID applications' given at the University of Adelaide on 12 July 2010, Professor Peter Cole said ...
Lecture notes given out during a lecture(Cole 2010)Cole, P 2010, 'Part 5: advanced electromagnetic theory', lecture notes distributed in the topic 7052 Electromagnetic theory and RFID applications, University of Adelaide, on 12 July 2010.
Maps(Mason 1832)Mason, J 1832, Map of the countries lying between Spain and India,1:8,000,000, Ordnance Survey, London.
Media release (Smith 1999) Smith, A (Minister for Justice and Commons) 1999, Coastwatch initiative bears fruit, media release, Parliament House, Canberra, 21 July.
Pamphlet – organisation as author (Health Department Victoria 1987) Health Department Victoria 1987, Quit: give smoking away in 5 days, Victorian Smoking and Health Program booklet, Anti-Cancer Council and National Heart Foundation, Melbourne.
Patent (Hill 1956) Hill, L 1956, Hills hoist, Australian Patent 215772.
Picture or graph (Willison & O'Regan 2006) Willison, J & O'Regan, K 2006, Research skill development framework, viewed 14 December 2010, (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/clpd/rsd/framework/).
Play (William Shakespeare, Hamlet, act 3, scene 1, line 64.) Shakespeare, W 1968, Hamlet, The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, London. [Only include in reference list if details are necessary.]
Poem (John Keats, Ode to a nightingale, verse 7, lines 1-2.) [Only include in reference list if details are necessary. Reference the source from which you found the poem, e.g. book or website.]
PowerPoint presentation (Aguilar 2001) Aguilar, F 2001, 'Polyethylene biodigesters: production of biogas and organic fertilizer from animal manure', PowerPoint presentation, viewed 14 December 2010, (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/poly_digester/).
Radio broadcast (The search for meaning 1998) The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.
Report – print and online (Bradley, Noonan & Scales 2008)
or give the name:
(The Bradley report 2008)
For online reports, include date viewed and (URL). See ‘Reports by organisations without a specific author’ (next entry) for example).

Bradley, D, Noonan, P, Nugent, H & Scales, B 2008, Review of Australian higher education, Australian Government, Canberra. Short name: Bradley report. Give a reference to the longer name: eg See Review of Australian higher education.
Reports by organisations without a specific author (The least developed countries report 2010)The least developed countries report 2010, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, viewed 14 December 2010, (https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/ldc2010_en.pdf).
Television broadcast(Letters and numbers 2010)Letter and numbers 2010, television program, SBS Television, Melbourne, 6 October.
Thesis(Miller)2002)Miller, J 2002, ‘An investigation into the use of anglicisms in modern European Portuguese’, MA thesis, Flinders University, Adelaide.
Video, film, DVD(Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010)Specify the format (e.g. video recording) after the date. Add other useful information after the citation, e.g. directed by… Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, video recording, Madman Entertainment, Australia. Directed by Jan Kounen.
And / &
  • ✓ For in-text references, use 'and' between names in the text and '&' between names in brackets.
  • ✓ Use ‘&’ between authors’ names in the reference list.
  • ✓ An author is someone who has written a particular text, such as a book or journal article.
  • ✓ An editor is someone who has compiled a text, such as a dictionary, or a book to which several authors have contributed.
  • ✓ For two authors with the same family name, writing in the same year, include their initials in the in-text reference. e.g. E Peters 2007, P Peters 2007. Give complete reference details as usual in the reference list and list them alphabetically in order of the family name followed by the authors’ initials.
  • ✓ Use the name of the first author and then 'et al.' for 4 or more authors in in-text references. Give all the authors in the reference list entry.
  • ✓ Website with no date – write n.d.
  • ✓ Two books or articles written in the same year – use the letters ‘a’ and ‘b’ in the text and in the reference list. e.g. Smith 2000a, Smith 2000b.
  • ✓ If a book has several editions, write the number of the edition you have used. N.B. This is not the same as the printing or reprinting date. First editions do not say ‘first edition’, but second and subsequent editions will tell you which edition they are.
Place of publication
  • ✓ Book with many places of publication – choose the first.
  • ✓ Book with no place of publication – write n.p.
  • ✓ Give any extra information needed to disambiguate (e.g. Cambridge, Mass. vs Cambridge, UK) or to clarify (St. Lucia, Qld, rather than just St. Lucia).
  • ✓ Use p. when referring to one page and pp. for more than one page.
Multiple and secondary sources
  • ✓ For more than one source at one place in the text, put the references in brackets in alphabetical order, separated by a semicolon (e.g. Brown 2003; Miller 2009; Smith 2001).
  • ✓ For secondary sources, give both sources in the text (e.g. Smith 2001 in Wright 2004) and only put the book you have physically used in the reference list (e.g. Wright, IM 2004, How to quote, Book Press, Adelaide).
Special exceptions
  • ✓ For classics (e.g. Virgil), give the line number and the date of the edition you have used in the reference list but not in the text.
  • ✓ Details of dictionaries, plays and poetry are not usually included in the reference list, unless you are studying a text and need to give publication and edition details.

Source: https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/sites/default/files/docs/harvard-referencing-guide.pdf.