MLA Referencing Style

What is MLA style?

MLA style is generally used by subject areas in the humanities, particularly in literature and language subject areas.

There are two parts to referencing: the citations within the text of your paper and the works cited list at the end of your paper.

The aim of the MLA style is to be brief and to provide only as much detail as is necessary to identify the work cited and the location of the information in that work. The flow of the text should not be interrupted.

No distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this case use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation par.

 

See all examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

  

Assignments
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Assignment from Another Unit (Amin) Amin, Sylvia B. 2011. “Research Implications.” Unpublished manuscript: Academic Learning Skills, University of Life, 2011.

  

A-V Materials
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
DVD (Moore) Moore, Michael, writer and director. Bowling for Columbine, AV Channel, 2003.
Radio Programme (Black Soccer Heroes) “Black Soccer Heroes.” Message Stick, presented by Daniel Browning, guest speaker Dr. John Maynard, ABC Radio, 9 Jun. 2006.
Sound Recording (St. Laurence Chamber Choir) St. Laurance Chamber Choir, performers. Commemoration, Ritual and Performance: The Iberian Connection: Medieval and Renaissance Music from the St Laurence Chamber Choir, directed by N. McEwan, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 2005.
Television Programme (Big Fish) “Big Fish, Little Fish.” Four Corners, presented by Chris Masters, ABC Television, 27 Mar. 2020.
Video Recording (Russell) Russell, Geoff, writer, producer and narrator. Tackling Bullies: An Australian Perspective, produced by Peter Wiseman, Video Classroom, 1995.
YouTube/Vimeo Video (NRK) NRK. “Medieval Helpdesk with English Subtitles.” YouTube. 26 Feb. 2007, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ.

  

Book Chapters
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Chapter or Article in Edited Boo (Sweeney 58) Sweeney, John. “The New Internationalism.” Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives in a Just World Economy, edited by Robin Broad, MacMillan Press, 2002, pp. 55-62.
Article in an Encyclopaedia (Fowler) Fowler, Alastair. “Genre.” International Encyclopedia of Communications, edited by Erik Barnouw, et al., Oxford UP, c1989. 4 vols.

  

Books
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Book Including Page Numbers (Pilger 225-226) Pilger, John. Distant Voices. Vintage, 1992.
Book: Single Author (Boyle) Boyle, Jimmy. The Pain of Confinement: Prison Diaries. Canongate, 1984.
Book: Two Authors or Editors (Dollimore and Hall) Dollimore, Johnathon, and Keith Hall, editors. Political Shakespeare: Essays in Cultural Materialism. 2nd ed., Cornell UP, 1994.
Book: 3 or More Authors (MacIntosh et al.) MacIntosh, Angus, et al. A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. Aberdeen UP, 1987. 4 vols.
Book: Organisation as Author (Australian Copyright Council) Australian Copyright Council. Copyright for Book Publishers: A Practical Guide. ACC, 1997.
Book: Government Agency as Author (Australia. Council for the Arts.) Australia, Council for the Arts. Writing: Protocols for Producing Indigenous Australian Writing. 2nd ed., ACA, 2007.
Book: Editor, Later Edition (Newcomb) Newcomb, Horace, editor. Television: The Critical View. 6th ed., Oxford UP, 2000.

  

Conference Papers
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Conference Paper in Print (Mann) Mann, Jill. “Chaucer and the ‘Woman Question.'” This Noble Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989. Edited by Erik Kooper, Rodopi, 1991, pp.173-88..
Conference Paper from the Internet (Zheng et al.) Zheng, Hongyan, et al. “Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Efficacy of English Acqusition in CALL Environment.” International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 13-15 November 2009. Vol. 2., IEEE Computer Society, 2009, pp. 494-496. IEEE Xplore, ieeexplore.ieee.org.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5360035.
Conference Proceedings (Balakian and Wilhelm) Balakian, Anna, and James J. Wilhelm, editors. Proceedings of the Xth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association: New York, NY, 1982. Garland, 1985.

  

E-books
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
E-book (Bass et al.) Bass, Len, et al. Software Architecture in Practice. 2nd ed., Addison Wesley, 2003. Safari.
Chapter from an E-book (Tygstmp) Tygstmp, Fredetik. “Changing Spaces: Salman Rushdie’s Mapping of Post-Colonial Territories.” Literary Landscapes: From Modernism to Postcolonialism. Edited by Attie de Lange, et al., Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp.198-213. Ebook Library.
Article from an Electronic Encyclopaedia (Courtright and Smudde) Courtright, Jeffrey L., and Peter M. Smudde. “Power and Public Relations.” The International Encyclopedia of Communication. Edited by Wolfgang Donsbach, Blackwell Publishing, 2008. Blackwell Reference Online.

  

E-journals
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Journal Article from a Full Text Database (Hill 326) Hill, Thomas D. “Beowulf’s Roman rites: Roman ritual and Germanic tradition.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 325-335. Academic OneFile, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=v=2.1&id=GALE
Journal Article from the Internet (Chartier) Chartier, Roger. “Everything and Nothing: The Many Lives of William Shakespeare.” Journal of Early Modern Studies, vol. 5, 2016, pp. 17-26, doi:10.13128/JEMS-2279-7149-18066.

  

Images
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Image/Photograph/Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz 72) Leibovitz, Annie. Olympic Portraits. Little Brown, 1996.
Reproduction in a Book (Bedford 154) Bedford, Paddy. Dingo Dreaming. 2001. Ochre on canvas. Reproduced in McCulloch, Susan, and Emily McCulloch Childs. McCulloch’s Contemporary Aboriginal Art: The Complete Guide. McCulloch & McCulloch Australian Art Books, 2008, p. 154.
Image from a Book Chapter (Ardagna et al. Figure 1) Ardagna, Claudio Agostino, et al. “Open-Source Solution to Secure E-Government Services.” Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Edited by Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Matti Malkia, Idea Group Reference, 2007, pp.1300-1305. IGI Global, http://www.igi-global.com.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/gateway/chapter/full-text-pdf/11671.
Image from a Journal Article (Yeh and Xu Table 1) Yeh, Quey-Jen, and Xiaojun Xu. “The Effect of Confucian Work Ethics on Learning About Science and Technology Knowledge and Morality.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 95, no. 1, 2010, pp. 111-128. ProQuest, doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0352-1.
Image from a Newspaper (Leunig 24) Leunig, Michael. “Thoughts of a Baby Lying in a Child Care Centre.” The Sydney Morning Herald, Jul. 27 1995, p. 24
Image from a Database (The Making of a Monologue min. 10:10) The Making of a Monologue: Robert Wilson’s Hamlet. Directed by Marion Kessel, Cinema Guild, 1995, Video. Theatre in Video, http://search.alexanderstreet.com.libproxy.ugm.ac.id/view/work/1779981.
Online Artwork (Nolan) Nolan, Sydney.The Encounter, 1946, Enamel paint on composition board. National Gallery of Australia, cs.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm?IRN=28938.
Online Image (Newbold) Newbold, Curtis R. Can I Use that Picture? The Terms, Laws, and Ethics for Using Copyrighted Pictures. The Visual Communication Guy, 2014, thevisualcommunicationguy.com/2014/07/14/can-i-use-that-picture/.
Online Map (Google Maps) Google Maps. “The British Library, London, UK.” Google, 2015, www.google.com.au/maps/place/The+British+Library/.
Original Image/Artwork (Viewed in a Gallery or Collection) (Angus) Angus, James. Gorilla, Gorilla, Gorilla, 2006, Wood veneers, nylon. Art Gallery of Western Australia.

Image/Photograph/Artwork from a Book (Leibovitz 72) Leibovitz, Annie. Olympic Portraits. Little Brown, 1996.

  

Internet Documents
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Electronic Document (Miranti et al.) Miranti, Riyana, et al. Calling Australia Home: The Characteristics and Contributions of Australia’s Migrants. NATSEM, 2010, www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/storage/AMP_NATSEM_27.pdf.
Government Publication (Western Australia. Office of Multicultural Interests.) Western Australia, Office of Multicultural Interests. Language Services Policy 2014 and Guidelines. OMI, 2014, www.omi.wa.gov.au/resources/publications/Languages/Language_Services_Policy_2014.pdf.
Legislation (Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth), sec. 2) Screen Australia Act 2008 (Cth). www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2008A00012.
Whole Internet Site (Jane Austen Society of America) Jane Austen Society of North America. Austen on Film, 24 Aug. 2015, www.jasna.org/info/about_austen.html.
Blog Entry (Morris) Morris, Sylvia. “Anticipating Macbeth on Film.” The Shakespeare Blog, 9 Jun. 2015, theshakespeareblog.com/2015/06/anticipating-macbeth-on-film/.

  

Journal Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Journal Article in Print (Hallin) Hallin, Daniel C. “Sound Bite News: Television Coverage of Elections, 1968-1988.” Journal of Communication, vol. 42, no.2, 1992, pp. 5-24.
Journal Article in Print Including a Page Number (Yeh 56) Yeh, Michelle. “The ‘Cult of Poetry’ in Contemporary China.” Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, 1996, pp. 51-80.

  

Newspaper Articles
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print (Buchanan) Buchanan, Rachel. “Truth and Valour: Anzac Day, the Myth”. The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 Apr. 1999, Good Weekend, pp. 43-44.
Newspaper Article from the Internet (Wakin) Wakin, Daniel J. “After Music From a Bridge, Why Not a Tower?” The New York Times, 8 Jul. 2010, artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/08/after-music-from-a-bridge-why-not-a-tower/.
Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database (Brown) Brown, Malcolm. “Prolific Writer Was Inspired by Landscape”. The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 Jun. 2010, p. 24. Factiva.

  

Podcasts
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Newspaper Article in Print (Buchanan) Buchanan, Rachel. “Truth and Valour: Anzac Day, the Myth”. The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 Apr. 1999, Good Weekend, pp. 43-44.
Newspaper Article from the Internet (Wakin) Wakin, Daniel J. “After Music From a Bridge, Why Not a Tower?” The New York Times, 8 Jul. 2010, artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/08/after-music-from-a-bridge-why-not-a-tower/.
Newspaper Article from a Full Text Database (Brown) Brown, Malcolm. “Prolific Writer Was Inspired by Landscape”. The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 Jun. 2010, p. 24. Factiva.

  

Readers/Study Guides
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Study Guide and Reader (Tyo) Tyo, Brown. “Towards Future.” The Discussion of Future. Yogyakarta: Sejati Press, 2010, pp. 10-31. Reprinted in Introduction to Future Life (ABC123) Study Guide and Reader. University of Life, 2019.

  

Secondary Sources
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Podcast (Brown) Brown, Angus. Civil War: A Real War?, 2019 Annual Lecture. University of Life, 2019, lecture.edu/8593865983
Podcast Radio Programme (Black Hole) “Black Hole Stellar feeding frenzy.” StarStuff, reported by Stuart Gary, 23 Dec. 2007, ABC News Radio, www.abc.net.au/science/audio/2015/12/02/4363828.htm?topic
Podcast Television Programme (Bad Borders) “Bad Borders.” VICE: Season 1, Episode 2, 2016, SBS OnDemand, http://www.sbs.com.au/.

  

Theses
Material Type In Text Citation Reference List Entry
Unpublished Thesis (Kane) Kane, Sonia. “Acts of Coercion: Father-Daughter Relationships and the Pressure to Confess in British Women’s Fiction, 1778-1814.” Diss. City U of New York, 2003.
Published Thesis (Darling) Darling, Charles W. Giver of Due Regard: The Poetry of Richard Wilbur. Diss. U. of CT, 1977. Merganser Press, 1979.
Thesis from a Full Text Database (White) White, Andrew. “Children Special Development.” Diss. University of Life, 2001. University of Life Research Repository, reporepo/23947238479238

  

The source of the content is originally from https://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/MLA/all. There are several adaptations and modifications in some areas and citation examples.